TsAGI for MC-21: innovative solutions
8 June 2017
- Фото предоставлено ПАО "Корпорация "Иркут"
On May 28, 2017 the maiden flight of the MC-21-300 commercial aircraft took place. The developer of the aircraft is the PJSC Irkut Corporation. The airplane was created with the cooperation of the Irkut Corporation and Zhukovsky Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI, part of the National Research Center “Institute named after N.E.Zhukovsky”).
From the inception of the MC-21, TSAGI contributed in designing the new aircraft. The Institute’s scientists implemented large-scale complex studies and proposed a number of innovative solutions.
Together with the experts of the Irkut Corporation, TsAGI specialists provided data for the aerodynamic data base for all operational modes. The scientists implemented aerodynamic design of the high-aspect-ratio wing taking into account the wing-HBR engine interaction, which ensured a high level of aerodynamic quality in cruise flight and normalized buffet margins. At TsAGI we made aerodynamic designs of up-to-date high lift devices, which provide operating performance requirements for home airfields, ensure safe operation of an aircraft in thrust reversal modes, and aerodynamic designs of the domestic PD-14 turbofan engine nacelles, which ensure low drag and increased stall margin of the propulsion unit.
TsAGI experts on hydrodynamics perform research on ditching. TsAGI specialist on aeroacustics investigate the environmental noise sources, cabin and cockpit noise sources; and they make recommendations for noise reduction and for the location of heat and sound insulating, as well as vibration-absorbing materials to ensure low cabin noise.
A wide range of work on the Ms-21 project was implemented by scientists of TsAGI’s Strength complex. The methods for ensuring static, fatigue and dynamic strength were executed. In the context of regulatory requirements the reference conditions for a composite wing and tail strength were provided. TsAGI specialists developed the damage tolerance criteria for the MC-21’s composite wing structure. Based on the analysis of the metal aircraft operational experience, they defined the expected accidental impact damage scenarios for an aircraft life cycle, determined the probable regular pattern of impacts of various energies, and defined the thresholds for visual inspectability of impact dents on the composite skin. Twenty-two strength and frequency test rigs for separate units and full-scale airframe were developed and constructed at TsAGI especially for the MC-21 project. In addition, testing procedures were developed and a significant number of studies and certification work on the strength of prototypes and separate units (fuselage, wing, tail, ) were carried out. A most significant impact on the project were TsAGI’s computational studies and rig testing for the development of integrated control system algorithms with an expanded functional structure in comparison with existing domestic and foreign analogues, which ensured a high level of flight safety and improved the ease of aircraft control. A real integrated control system computer was worked out at the PS-MS TsAGI semi full-scale simulator. Active side sticks and active load alleviation systems were tested in TsAGI. Also, the Irkut Corporation flight crew trained for the first flight operation at TsAGI.
The MC-21-300 is a new generation aircraft with a capacity of 163 to 211 passengers and targets the largest segment of the aviation market. The aircraft provides passengers with a significant new level of comfort, due to the largest fuselage diameter in narrow-body aircraft. The aircraft is superior to existing counterparts in terms of flight-technical characteristics and efficiency. The major contributor to the enhancement of flight-technical characteristics of the aircraft is the wing made of polymer composite materials, the first-in-the-world, developed for narrow-body aircraft with a capacity of over 130 passengers. The share of composites in the MC-21 design exceeds 30% and is unique for this category of aircraft. The airliner is offered to customers with two optional power plants: the PW1400G from Pratt & Whitney Company (USA) or the PD-14 from the United Engine Corporation (Russia). These new-generation engines feature reduced fuel consumption, low noise and hazardous emissions. The MC-21 aircraft meets stringent environmental requirements.