Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute
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Wind tunnel T-104

Basic parameters

Flow velocity 10–120 m/s
Reynolds number per 1 m up to 8∙106
Total pressure atmospheric
Dynamic pressure up to 8.8 kPa
Stagnation temperature environmental
Test section dimensions:
Nozzle diameter 7 m
Test section length 13 m

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General description

T-104 is a continuous-operation, closed-layout wind tunnel with one reverse channel and an open test section. One two-stage fan located in the reverse channel and driven by two electric motors of total power 28.4 MW generates the flow.
The wind tunnel is designed to investigate full-scale power plants, fans and main rotors, as well as separate elements of full-scale flight vehicles and their models at low subsonic velocities and wide range of slip and attack angels. Computerized measurement-and-control complex enables data registration, acquisition and processing.


The following types of tests can be carried out in T-104:

  • investigations of static and dynamic characteristics of full-scale power plants measuring power plants thrust up to 100 kN with the help of special experimental technologies and equipment;
  • determination of aerodynamic characteristics of single and coaxial rotors using special rotor devices, which provide rotation of propellers of 0.5-3 m in diameters with the speed of 12000 rev/min;
  • investigations of characteristics of static and dynamic aeroelasticity of large-scale elastically- and dynamically-similar models of flight vehicles using special experimental technologies and equipment;
  • standard tests in the area of industrial object aerodynamics using both steady electro-mechanical six-component balance and inmodel strain-gauge balance with and without stationary groundsimulation screen;
  • physical investigations (pressure distribution measurement on electronic modules, flow visualization of different types, etc.).

Technological advantages

  • Investigations of the flows in air inlet channels under vacuum up to P = 0.2 bar using the available ejector bench;
  • Removable protection net enables investigations of trajectories of cargo (or its elements) separation from the flight vehicle
  • models, as well as investigations of the process of cargo and dummy occupants dropping and evaluation of the rescue means efficiency.

Practical application

During 70 years the above mentioned capabilities of T-104 have been used for experimental investigations of flight vehicles of different purposes. Practically all domestic propellers, fans and main rotors, air intakes at high and critical angles of attack were experimentally verified; system and characterist investigated on the special large-scale models.